Time to decide: Who’s your pick for the top Starship Captain in a sci-fi book/series?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

Last week we started a brand new debate asking you to submit your votes for the top Starship Captains in a book/series of all time.

Hundreds of you voted on over 50 captains that were submitted to the debate.

Want to see the full list you guys put up to the vote? Click here to check it out and see who didn't make the cut.

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.

Who's your pick for the top Starship Captain in a sci-fi book/series?

Time to decide: What’s your pick for top time travel tales of all time?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

Last week we started one of our most cut-throat debates EVER asking you to submit your votes for the top time travel tales of all time.

Hundreds of you voted on over 50 books/series that were submitted to the debate.

Want to see the full list you guys put up to the vote? Click here to check it out and see who didn't make the cut.

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.

What is the best time travel book/series of all time?

Time to decide: What’s your pick for top military sci-fi book/series of all time?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

Last week we started one of our most cut-throat debates EVER asking you to submit your votes for the top military sci-fi book/series of all time.

Hundreds of you voted on over 50 books/series that were submitted to the debate.

Want to see the full list you guys put up to the vote? Click here to check it out and see who didn't make the cut.

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.

What is the best military sci-fi book/series of all time?

Who’s the most EPIC villain in a sci-fi book or series?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

This week we want your votes and submissions for the most EPIC villain/group of villains, in a sci-fi book or series.

Every great sci-fi book needs to have a villain. The more evil the better. Often entire armies enrage us with their decimation of innocent people. From the most well-written, to the most devious, whatever you decide makes a villain great, we want to know who comes out on top of your list!

Weigh in on the poll below (feel free to add your own suggestions) and then duke it out in the comments!

Who is the most EPIC villain/group of villains, in a sci-fi book or series?
  • Add your answer

What’s the best movie adapted from a science fiction novel?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

This week we want your votes and submissions for the best movie adapted from a science fiction novel.

While most books that are made into movies fall flat on their faces and leave readers everywhere with scorn and anger in their hearts, there are some shining stars that rise above all expectations.

Weigh in on the poll below (feel free to add your own suggestions) and then duke it out in the comments!

What's the best movie adapted from a science fiction novel?
  • Add your answer

Time to decide: What’s the best movie adapted from a science fiction novel?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

Last week we started a poll asking you to submit your votes for the best movie adapted from a science fiction novel.

Hundreds of you voted on over 50 movies that were submitted to the debate.

Today, we've parred the list down to 11 (to account for the 2 that tied for 10th place in the first round of voting) as determined by the majority of you*, and now we want to find out who comes out on top. Register your vote below, and duke it out in the comments.

Weigh in on the poll below (feel free to add your own suggestions) and then duke it out in the comments!

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.

What's the best movie adapted from a science fiction novel?

Who is the most iconic character in as sci-fi book or series?

THE DEBATE IS ON!

This week we want your votes and submissions for the most iconic character in a science fiction book or series.

What makes an iconic protagonist? Is it their ability to overcome all odds? Or, the deep introspection and reflection on some of life's biggest questions? Some have been on epic adventures that span a galaxy, while others have fought more personal battles in a single location.

Weigh in on the poll below and then duke it out in the comments!

What's the most iconic character in a sci-fi novel/series?
  • Add your answer

The top 10 best movies adapted from sci-fi books of all time.

Did you know that there is an official Discover Sci-Fi Facebook group?

Fuelled by the opinions of hundreds of sci-fi fans like yourself, each week we spark a new debate where you guys battle it out over which books rank at the top of best ever lists.

Ordered from 10 to 1 below based on your votes in the group and on this blog, this week we've got your top 10 selections for the best movie adaptation of a sci-fi book or series.

Click on the links to pick up the books that inspired each of the movies to add to your collection, and then add your comments at the bottom of this post (or in our Facebook group) to let us know if you agree (or not!).

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.

10. Planet of the Apes (1968) by Pierre Boulle

Rounding out the top 10 list is Planet of the Apes, the original 1968 film version, based on the sci-fi novel by Pierre Boulle.

First published more than fifty years ago, Pierre Boulle’s chilling novel launched one of the greatest science fiction sagas in motion picture history.

The novel tells the tale of three human explorers from Earth who visit a planet orbiting the star Betelgeuse, in which great apes are the dominant intelligent and civilized species, whereas humans are reduced to a savage animal-like state.


9. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams

At number 9, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is a 2005 British-American science fiction comedy film directed by Garth Jennings, based upon previous works in the media franchise of the same name, created by Douglas Adams

After several years of setbacks and renewed efforts to start production and a quarter of a century after the first book was published, the big-screen adaptation of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy was finally shot.


8. The Time Machine (1960) by H.G. Wells

The Time Machine (also known promotionally as H. G. Wells' The Time Machine) is a 1960 American science fiction film in Metrocolor from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, produced and directed by George Pal, that stars Rod Taylor, Yvette Mimieux, and Alan Young. The film was based on the 1895 novella of the same name by H. G. Wells that was influential on the development of science fiction.

The Time Machine received an Oscar for its time-lapse photographic effects, which show the world changing rapidly as the time traveler journeys into the future.


7. Contact by Carl Sagan

Coming in at number 7, Contact is a 1997 American science fiction drama film directed by Robert Zemeckis. It is a film adaptation of Carl Sagan‘s 1985 novel of the same name; Sagan and his wife Ann Druyan wrote the story outline for the film.

The film won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and received multiple awards and nominations at the Saturn Awards.


6. Ender's Game by Orson Scott Card

Ender's Game is a 2013 American military science fiction action film based on Orson Scott Card‘s 1985 novel of the same name. Written and directed by Gavin Hood, the film stars Asa Butterfield as Andrew “Ender” Wiggin (who also came in at #7 in our list of most iconic sci-fi characters), an unusually gifted child who is sent to an advanced military academy in outer space to prepare for a future alien invasion.


5. The War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells

War of the Worlds is the second H.G. Wells book-turned-movie to appear on this list. It also came in at #6 on our top 10 list of best post-apocalyptic books of all time.

It has been adapted twice for the big screen, most recently in 2005 in a version directed by Steven Spielberg, written by Josh Friedman and David Koepp, and starring Tom Cruise.

In the film, an American dock worker is forced to look after his children, from whom he lives separately, as he struggles to protect them and reunite them with their mother when extraterrestrials invade the Earth and devastate cities with towering war machines.


4. The Martian by Andy Weir

Coming in at #4, The Martian is a 2015 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Matt Damon. The Martian, a novel by Andy Weir, served as the screenplay adapted by Drew Goddard. The film depicts an astronaut's lone struggle to survive on Mars after being left behind, and efforts to rescue him.

The film went over incredibly well with sci-fi fans worldwide, grossing over $630 million worldwide, and earning several awards, including the Hugo Award for Best Long Form Dramatic Presentation, and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor.


3. Dune by Frank Herbert

Dune is a 1984 American epic science fiction film written and directed by David Lynch and based on the 1965 Frank Herbertnovel of the same name. The film stars Kyle MacLachlan as young nobleman Paul Atreides – the character who also got your votes as the #3 most EPIC sci-fi character of all time.

A stunning blend of adventure and mysticism, environmentalism and politics, Dune won the first Nebula Award, shared the Hugo Award, and formed the basis of what is undoubtedly the grandest epic in science fiction. Unfortunately, despite it's popularity, most sci-fi fans would argue that the film adaptation did a poor job of representing the novel.

With a new version coming out in 2020, fans are eagerly anticipating this updated version, which hopefully rings more true to the original book.


2. 2001: A Space Odyssey from The Sentinel by Arthur C Clarke

At number 2 comes 2001: A Space Odyssey, a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay was written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, and was inspired by Clarke's short story “The Sentinel“.

The film, which follows a voyage to Jupiter with the sentient computer HAL* after the discovery of a mysterious black monolith affecting human evolution, deals with themes of existentialism, human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and the possibility of extraterrestrial life. The film is noted for its scientifically accurate depiction of spaceflight, pioneering special effects, and ambiguous imagery.

*HAL-9000 placed in the number 2 slot in our list of top 10 most EPIC sci-fi characters of all time.


1. Blade Runner from Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep by Philip K. Dick

Blade Runner is a 1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott. It is a loose adaptation of Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968).

The film has influenced many science fiction films, video games, anime, and television series. It brought the work of Philip K. Dick to the attention of Hollywood, and several later big-budget films were based on his work. Seven versions of Blade Runner exist as a result of controversial changes requested by studio executives. A director's cut was released in 1992 after a strong response to test screenings of a workprint. This, in conjunction with the film's popularity as a video rental, made it one of the earliest movies to be released on DVD. 


Well, what do you think of that list? Do you agree, or do you feel as though your most-loved movie adaptation is missing/didn't place as you think it deserved? Feel free to join us here in our Facebook group to chime in on the debate, and then check out our most recent poll while you're there. Don't have Facebook? Feel free to add to the comments below.

*All book-related copy in this post was pulled from Amazon & Wikipedia.

The top 10 best military sci-fi books/series of all time.

Did you know that there is an official Discover Sci-Fi Facebook group?

Fuelled by the opinions of thousands of sci-fi fans like yourself, each week we spark a new debate where you guys battle it out over which books rank at the top of best ever lists.

Ordered from 10 to 1 below based on your votes in the group and on this blog, this week we've got your top 10 selections for the best military sci-fi book/series of all time.

Click on the links to pick up each of these top picks to add to your collection, and then add your comments at the bottom of this post (or in our Facebook group) to let us know if you agree (or not!).

Want to see who didn't make the cut? Click here to view the original poll that inspired this list.

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.

10. Hell Divers by Nicholas Sansbury Smith

Rounding out the top 10 list is the New York Times and USA Today bestselling Hell Divers series by Nicholas Sansbury Smith. In Hell Divers, Smith unleashes post-apocalyptic science-fiction with the pacing of a thriller. He achieves his world-building succinctly, and moves from thrills to chills without the story becoming a mere catalogue of violence, along with tender moments that round out the characters. Hell Divers offers genre fans everything they could ask for, from fresh takes on the post-apocalypse to social commentary reminiscent of Snowpiercer, and plenty of action. The book's swift, tight plotting will also appeal to thriller fans, with a cliffhanger ending that leaves readers suspended mid-air for the rest of a promised trilogy.


9. The Ember War Series by Richard Fox

At number 9, The Ember War by Richard Fox is a 9 book series that can be described as “Battlestar Galactica meets Mass Effect.” It is a story of first contact with galactic empires, some with our best interests at heart, others that see us as an infestation to be wiped out. Epic space battles, heroes and villains you'll never forget and just the right amount of humor to make you bust out laughing while you're reading in public.


8. Bobiverse by Dennis E. Taylor

Bobiverse by Dennis E. Taylor is the story of Robert “Bob” Johansson, who, after becoming financially independent by selling his software company, decides to spend some of his money by contracting to have his head cryogenically frozen by CryoEterna Inc. upon his death. The idea is that his head would be preserved until later, when technology permitted a body to be grown and his thawed head attached to it – thus resuming life. The next day he is unexpectedly killed in an automobile accident, and his contract is activated. He wakes up 117 years later and finds that he has been harvested from his frozen disembodied head and installed in a computer matrix as an artificial intelligence. The world has significantly changed.


7. The Lost Fleet by Jack Campbell

Coming in at number 7, is The Lost Fleet by “Jack Campbell,” which is the pseudonym for John G. Hemry, a retired Naval officer (and graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis). As Jack Campbell, he writes The Lost Fleet series of military science fiction novels.

From book 1… Captain John “Black Jack” Geary’s legendary exploits are known to every schoolchild. Revered for his heroic “last stand” in the early days of the war, he was presumed dead. But a century later, Geary miraculously returns from survival hibernation and reluctantly takes command of the Alliance Fleet as it faces annihilation by the Syndic.

Appalled by the hero-worship around him, Geary is nevertheless a man who will do his duty. And he knows that bringing the stolen Syndic hypernet key safely home is the Alliance’s one chance to win the war. But to do that, Geary will have to live up to the impossibly heroic “Black Jack” legend..


6. Old Man's War by John Scalzi

In your #6 pick, Scalzi's blending of wry humor and futuristic warfare recalls Joe Haldeman's classic, The Forever War (1974), and strikes the right fan–pleasing chords to probably garner major sf award nominations.

In Old Man's War…with his wife dead and buried, and life nearly over at 75, John Perry takes the only logical course of action left him: he joins the army. Now better known as the Colonial Defense Force (CDF), Perry's service-of-choice has extended its reach into interstellar space to pave the way for human colonization of other planets while fending off marauding aliens. The CDF has a trick up its sleeve that makes enlistment especially enticing for seniors: the promise of restoring youth. After bonding with a group of fellow recruits who dub their clique the Old Farts, Perry finds himself in a new body crafted from his original DNA and upgraded for battle, including fast-clotting “smartblood” and a brain-implanted personal computer. All too quickly the Old Farts are separated, and Perry fights for his life on various alien-infested battlegrounds.


5. Ender's Game by Orson Scott Card

Ender's Game by Orson Scott Card is the winner of the 1985 Nebula Award for Best Novel and the 1986 Hugo Award for Best Novel. This futuristic tale involves aliens, political discourse on the Internet, sophisticated computer games, and an orbiting battle station. Yet the reason it rings true for so many is that it is first and foremost a tale of humanity; a tale of a boy struggling to grow up into someone he can respect while living in an environment stripped of choices. Ender's Game is a must-read book for science fiction lovers, and a key conversion read for their friends who “don't read science fiction.”

*Ender's Game placed at #6 on our list of best sci-fi film adaptations.

*Andrew “Ender” Wiggin placed at #7 on our list of most epic sci-fi characters.


4. Dune by Frank Herbert

At #4 is fan-favorite Dune by Frank Herbert – a book that's shown up in almost all of the top 10 lists we publish. A stunning blend of adventure and mysticism, environmentalism and politics, Dune won the first Nebula Award, shared the Hugo Award, and formed the basis of what is undoubtedly the grandest epic in science fiction.

*Dune came in at #3 on our list of best sci-fi film adaptations.

*The book's protaganist Paul Atreides came in at #3 on our list ofmost epic sci-fi characters.

*The Bene Gesserit Sisterhood and Baron Vladimir Harkonnen both placed on our list of most epic villains of all time.


3. Galaxy's Edge Series by Jason Anspach and Nick Cole

Galaxy's Edge is a co-written project by Jason Anspach and Nick Cole. Each book in the Galaxy's Edge series is an essential piece of an interconnected whole. Fight alongside Lieutenant Chhun and Victory Company through the deserts of Kublar in Legionnaire. Join the roguish Captain Keel and notorious bounty hunter Tyrus Rechs as they chase the same target in Galactic Outlaws. Continue to Kill Team to see how all these characters find their place on the galactic stage together, along with Legion Commander Keller, Dark Ops, and the mysterious secret agent X… then brace for a civil war initiated by the enigmatic Goth Sullus in Attack of Shadows.And that's only the beginning.


2. Starship Troopers by Robert A. Heinlein

At number 2 comes the cult classic Starship Troopers by Robert A. Heinlein. This controversial Hugo Award-winning bestseller, a recruit of the future goes through the toughest boot camp in the Universe—and into battle against mankind’s most alarming enemy…

“A classic…If you want a great military adventure, this one is for you.”—All SciFi

*Starship Troopers also placed in our top 10 list of best sci-fi books of all time. Click here to check out the full list.


1. The ExForce Series by Craig Alanson

Craig Alanson is a New York Times best-selling author of the (currently) 7 book Expeditionary Force (ExForce) series. His first audiobook Columbus Day, ExForce book 1, was one of five finalists for Audiobook Of The Year 2018.

And his fans came out in droves in support of his massively successful military sci-fi series, rocketing it to the very top of this exciting debate!

From book 1… We were fighting on the wrong side, of a war we couldn't win. And that was the good news.

The Ruhar hit us on Columbus Day. There we were, innocently drifting along the cosmos on our little blue marble, like the native Americans in 1492. Over the horizon come ships of a technologically advanced, aggressive culture, and BAM! There go the good old days, when humans only got killed by each other. So, Columbus Day. It fits.

When the morning sky twinkled again, this time with Kristang starships jumping in to hammer the Ruhar, we thought we were saved. The UN Expeditionary Force hitched a ride on Kristang ships to fight the Ruhar, wherever our new allies thought we could be useful. So, I went from fighting with the US Army in Nigeria, to fighting in space. It was lies, all of it. We shouldn't even be fighting the Ruhar, they aren't our enemy, our allies are.

I'd better start at the beginning….


Well, what do you think of that list? Do you agree, or do you feel as though your most-loved military sci-fi book/series is missing/didn't place as you think it deserved? Feel free to join us here in our Facebook group to chime in on the debate, and then check out our most recent poll while you're there. Don't have Facebook? Feel free to add to the comments below.

*All book-related copy in this post was pulled from Amazon & Wikipedia.

The top 10 Starship Captains in a book/series of all time.

Did you know that there is an official Discover Sci-Fi Facebook group?

Fuelled by the opinions of thousands of sci-fi fans like yourself, each week we spark a new debate where you guys battle it out over which books rank at the top of best ever lists.

Ordered from 10 to 1 below based on your votes in the group and on this blog, this week we've got your top 10 selections for the best Starship Captains in a book/series of all time.

Click on the links to pick up the books featuring our courageous captains to add to your collection, and then add your comments at the bottom of this post (or in our Facebook group) to let us know if you agree (or not!).

Want to see who didn't make the cut? Click here to view the original poll that inspired this list.

*The results were decided by you based on votes tallied up between our Facebook group and on our blog.


10. Captain Wraith/Aeson Keel/Ford from the Galaxy's Edge series by Jason Anspach and Nick Cole

Galaxy's Edge is a co-written project by Jason Anspach and Nick Cole. Each book in the Galaxy's Edge series is an essential piece of an interconnected whole.

Aeson Keel is a main character introduced in book 1, Legionnaire. Captain and owner of the independent freighter ship Indelible VI. He’s adopted the persona of “Wraith”, a bounty hunter, in order to gain access of the underworld where bounty hunters live and work. 

Join the roguish Captain Keel and notorious bounty hunter Tyrus Rechs as they chase the same target in Galactic Outlaws. Continue to Kill Team to see how all these characters find their place on the galactic stage together, along with Legion Commander Keller, Dark Ops, and the mysterious secret agent X… then brace for a civil war initiated by the enigmatic Goth Sullus in Attack of Shadows. And that's only the beginning.


9. Cal Carver from the Space Team series by Barry J. Hutchison

Featuring epic space battles, alien gangsters, and several thousand flying Tobey Maguires, Space Team is the first book in the internationally bestselling series by award-winning author, Barry J. Hutchison. It stars small-time crook Cal Carver who, through a series of unfortunate events, finds himself forced into a team of some of the sector's most notorious villains and scumbags and tasked with delivering a package to a warlord-run solar system where the authorities daren't venture.


8. Col Joe Bishop from the ExForce series by Craig Alanson

Craig Alanson is a New York Times best-selling author of the (currently) 7 book Expeditionary Force (ExForce) series. His first audiobook Columbus DayExForce book 1, was one of five finalists for Audiobook Of The Year 2018.

The story follows Joe Bishop, a grunt in the army who is on Earth in the US during Columbus Day, one of the US holidays, when Earth is attacked by aliens. During the attack, a second alien race arrives, and it appears, chases off the first. The second alien race stay, enlisting humans to help in a galactic war, and suddenly Joe, who did some interesting things during the interrupted invasion, is thrust into the galaxy as a soldier on another planet.


7. “Black” Jack Geary from the Lost Fleet books by Jack Campbell

 The Lost Fleet by “Jack Campbell,” which is the pseudonym for John G. Hemry, a retired Naval officer (and graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis). As Jack Campbell, he writes The Lost Fleet series of military science fiction novels.

Captain John “Black Jack” Geary's legendary exploits are known to every schoolchild. Revered for his heroic “last stand” in the early days of the war, he was presumed dead. But a century later, Geary miraculously returns from survival hibernation and takes command of the Alliance fleet as it faces annihilation by the Syndics.


6. Jim Holden from The Expanse series by James S. A. Corey

Coming in at number 6, is the revolutionary NYT bestselling Expanse series by James S. A. Corey which introduces Captain James Holden and his crew, as they unravel a horrifying solar system wide conspiracy that begins with a single missing girl.


5. Lazarus Long (Woodrow Wilson Smith) from various novels by Robert A. Heinlein

In your #5 pick, Lazarus Long is a fictional character featured in a number of science fiction novels by Robert A. Heinlein. Born in 1912 in the third generation of a selective breeding experiment run by the Ira Howard Foundation, Lazarus (birth name Woodrow Wilson Smith) becomes unusually long-lived, living well over two thousand years with the aid of occasional rejuvenation treatments. He


4. Tyler Barron from the Blood and the Stars series by Jay Allan

A duel, in the deepest darks, a savage fight between two veteran warriors, two captains, two heroes. An epic battle that only one can survive. A fight to determine if there is peace, or a bloody war where billions will die…

In Jay Allan's sweeping military sci-fi epic, Blood on the Stars, a distress call from a mining colony at the edge of Confederation space, sends Captain Tyler Barron and his ship forward into the unknown. Barron is the grandson of the Confederation’s greatest hero, and his name has always carried great privilege, along with crushing responsibility. Now he must prove that he has inherited more than just a name from his famous ancestor. 


3. Malcolm Reynolds from the Firefly series by James Lovegrove

Malcolm ‘Mal' Reynolds was the captain of the Firefly-class transport ship Serenity. During the Unification War, Mal fought for the Independents and was the highest ranking Browncoat to participate in and survive the Battle of Serenity Valley.

Malcolm's main mission is to keep his crew alive and to keep his ship flying. As Firefly writer Tim Minear stated in an interview: “It's just about getting by. That's always been the mission statement of what the show is — getting by.” In Serenity, Mal says of himself: “[If the] Wind blows Northerly, I go North.”


2. Jean-Luc Picard from the “Star Trek Next Generation” book series by various authors

Jean-Luc Picard is a fictional character in the Star Trek franchise, most often seen as the Captain of the starship USS Enterprise-D. As a character in the Star Trek franchise, Picard appears in various books, comics, computer games, and films throughout the 1990s. He is portrayed as being deeply moved by a desire to explore the universe and with a strong sense of duty, however he has misgivings about not having a family. The close-knit crew of the Enterprise provides his main friendships as they take on the Galaxy. Some of his interests, as presented by show include space exploration, Shakespeare, archeology, and earl grey tea.


1. Honor Harrington from the Honorverse series by David Weber

At #1 is Honor Stephanie Alexander-Harrington (née Honor Stephanie Harrington), a fictional character created in 1992 by writer David Weber as the heroine of the eponymous “Honorverse”, a universe described in a series of best-selling military science fiction books set between 4003 and 4025 AD.

Harrington is an officer in the Royal Manticoran Navy (RMN), the space navy of the Star Kingdom of Manticore, an interstellar monarchy that counterbalances its relatively small size with superior space combat technology and capability. She has a genius for tactical command, often overcoming significant odds in critical battles and frequently finding herself at the centre of significant military actions. Her dedication to duty and uncompromising performance results in receiving numerous awards and promotions, earning the respect of interstellar empires, and accumulating implacable enemies. She is a skilled martial artist and through her association with her treecat companion Nimitz, develops an empathic sense that assists her in understanding the emotions of those around her.


Well, what do you think of that list? Do you agree, or do you feel as though your most-loved military sci-fi book/series is missing/didn't place as you think it deserved? Feel free to join us here in our Facebook group to chime in on the debate, and then check out our most recent poll while you're there. Don't have Facebook? Feel free to add to the comments below.

*All book-related copy in this post was pulled from Amazon & Wikipedia.